Organizations set many different types of goals.These goals are most commonly classified into two broad categories.a.level-wise(top,middle and operational), b.time-wise (short-term,medium-term, and long-term).
LEVEL WISE GOALS
Organizations are generally divided into three levels-top,middle and bottom.Generally,organization goals are formulated at the top of the pyramid and filter down.In some cases,the reverse is also true.Based on this classification of organizational levels,four types of goals can identified.a.mission,b,strategic goals,c.tactical goals and operational goals.
MISSION-The organization;s mission describes the vision of its top leadership has of the organization;s purposed and philosophy.The organizations must fir ts visualizes what they aim to become.They develop and formulate inspiring statements of the core purposes of their work.These mission statements, thus,reflect the focus,image,philosophy, and aspirations of the organization.The mission projects the image of the organization.Organizational members identify themselves with the mission and share of pride and commitment.
STRATEGIC GOALS-Strategic goals are stated in general terms.They are developed in view of the mission of the organization.They outline overall organizations goals relating to different dimensions of their business like profit making,product development,resources allocation,human resource development,research priorities, and so on.These are therefore,organization set strategic goal.The board of directors and the top management of the organization set strategic goals.While setting such goals,they seek inputs from staff specialist and middle managers.Strategic goals,they seek inputs from staff specialists and middle managers.Strategic goals,thus,indicate the real in tensions of an organization.The executive management of an organization of an organization usually determines the strategic goals.These top leaders scan the external environment for opportunities or threats to the organization aim is to match internal strengths and weakness to changes in the external environment in order to create new opportunities.
TACTICAL OR INTERMEDIATE GOALS-Tactical or intermediate goals are set to translate the strategic goals into action.These goals involve the middle level managers.Compared with strategic goals,these goals have a some what shorter time span, and more specific and concrete focus .The focus of tactical goals is on how to ope rationalize actions necessary to achieve the strategic goals.
OPERATIONAL GOALS-Operational goals are set for lower-level management.The main concern here is with shorter term issues associated with intermediate or tactical goals.The supervisory level staff members are responsible for develop in and implementing operational goals that will meet the tactical goals.Activities and resources are assigned to individuals and groups to carry out some portion of the operational goals.The operational goals affect employees day to-day-activities.
Organizational goals are also set across different time span.It is a common practice divide goals into three time frames-long term,medium and short -term.Missions have infinite time horizon.Strategic goals are long term and cover many years,perhaps even decade.Intermediate or tactical goals are medium term and usually cover periods from one to five years.Operational goals are short term and have a time frame of one year or less.